By Sascha W. Felix

ISBN-10: 9383048964

ISBN-13: 9789383048960

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1995). , 1994). Levels as low as 20 ppm of fumonisin can be toxic to shrimps. Antinutritional Factors (ANF) from Vegetable Ingredients Antinutritional factors (ANF) in vegetable ingredients are rather complex as there is a vast array of toxic substances (Tacon, 1985, 1987). Insoluble fibres, soluble fibres, enzyme inhibitors, saponins, lectins, tennins, phytic acid and gossypol are the most important anti-inhibitors factors and are transmitted via the feed (Krogdahl, 1989). The presence of these antinutritional factors limit the use of vegetable feedstuffs in aquaculture.

Water in the tank should be adjusted to near the temperature and salinity of the water in which the shrimps were transported. After the post-larvae are added to the tank, the water in the tank is gradually adjusted to pond salinity and temperature. The period of adjustment depends on how much the temperature and salinity need to be changed, but usually a period of 12 hours would be sufficient. The fry should not be released into a nursery pond during hot hours of the day. Evening hours would be best suited for this job.

8 mg/l. 3 and in ponds with a good growth of phytoplankton, pH values of 9 and above are common in the late afternoon. Most of the ammonia in a pond is formed due to the waste accumulation of the organisms originated or living in the pond. The higher the density of both the species being cultured and the organisms cultured for food, the greater the production of ammonia. Ammonia will eventually be converted to nitrate, but there is a danger that ammonia production will exceed the capacity of the pond to convert the ammonia rapidly enough to prevent it from exceeding toxic levels.

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Advances in shrimp aquaculture management by Sascha W. Felix

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