By R. I. G. Hughes

ISBN-10: 0872201821

ISBN-13: 9780872201828

This quantity of contemporary writings, a few formerly unpublished, follows the series of a regular intermediate or upper-level good judgment path and permits lecturers to complement their displays of formal equipment and effects with readings on corresponding questions in philosophical good judgment.

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**Extra resources for A Philosophical Companion to First-Order Logic**

**Example text**

Now, from a truthconditional perspective, this double illocutionary force-an assumption, and an assertion within its scope-is eliminable-is reducible to, or equivalent to, a plain assertion. If conditionals have truthconditions, to assert 'If A, B' is to assert that its truth-conditions obtain. One way of presenting the conclusion of this essay, then, is that the double illocutionary force is ineliminable; there is no proposition such that asserting it to be the case is equivalent to asserting that B is the case given the supposition that A is the case.

This measure has the advantage of allowing the probability of the conditional to be independent of the probability of the antecedent. On the truth-functional account, the probability that if you toss the coin it lands heads depends crucially on how probable it is that you toss it. Suppose it is much less likely now that you toss the coin than it was a minute ago. The probability of the material implication, which is equivalent to: Either you won't toss it, or (you will and it will land heads) has greatly increased.

In addition to the variations among inscriptions which are respectively in upper case, lower case, cursive and dot matrix form, consider the resemblance between a 52 Richard E. Grandy spoken and a written token of a sentence! Since there is a great deal of variability in terminology, let us make explicit that in our use an ambiguous sentence inscription is an inscription of at least two sentence tokens of differing types. For example, "Visiting relatives can be boring" is a single token of two different types-the types differ with regard to whether the relatives or the speaker is visiting.

### A Philosophical Companion to First-Order Logic by R. I. G. Hughes

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