By David Reed Greenwood; G L Kingsbury; J G Cleland; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development
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Extra info for A handbook of key federal regulations and criteria for multimedia environmental control
Of electrode separation) is increased by increasing the voltage, a plot of the resulting ionization current will have the following general shape. 3 GASEOUS ION CHAMBERS Three instruments in this general class are: the Ionization Chamber, the Proportional Counter, and the Geiger-MUller Counter. The basic principle of this class of detector is shown below. C u r r e n t 12 2x ions/sec 12 x ions/sec Vo ta ' + + + + Bias Yoltage Meter The detector consists of a gas-filled chamber with two electrodes, a positive anode and a negative cathode.
Deadtime 4. Background Radiation 5. Counting Statistics. 4 πRi 4 πRii Assuming that the radiation is emitted isotropically, and that there is no attenuation, then the same radiation (say N photons per second) will pass uniformly through the surfaces of both spheres. But radiation intensity is expressed as the number of photons per second passing through unit area. So, to find the intensity at the surface of each sphere we must divide the total radiation by the surface area of the sphere. Thus the intensity at the Radiation Safety Officer's Handbook CHAPTER A3 A3-J3 surface of the first sphere is N divided by 41 R12, and N divided by 41 R22 at the surface of the second.
From the Poisson theory, it can be shown that if we have a result N counts per minute, then a measure of the uncertainty in this result, called the "variance of the mean", is also N. ) is given by N. D. is 1 0 0 = 10. In this case the standard deviation is 10% of the number of counts (10/100 = 10%). Radiation Safety Officer's Handbook /TOO CHAPTER A3 A3-J5 Suppose we recorded 2700 counts from a sample in a time of 3 minutes, removed the sample from the counter, and recorded a background of 300 counts in another 3 minutes.
A handbook of key federal regulations and criteria for multimedia environmental control by David Reed Greenwood; G L Kingsbury; J G Cleland; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development