By P Emmer, O Petre-Grenouilleau, Jessica Roitman
The results of the growth of Europe have involved historians and economists, in addition to the general public at huge, for hundreds of years. some of the most exciting and debatable results of Europe's growth has been the alternate that resulted from this move out of Europe and into different areas of the area. The position of international alternate in Europe's financial progress and particularly in its industrialization has lengthy been hotly contested. This quantity has as its element of departure the concept that the hyperlink among colonial exchange and the advance of Europe was once even more advanced than hitherto believed. simply because this hyperlink is so advanced, this quantity includes essays through a variety of experts to evaluate the recent instructions within the historiography. additionally, this quantity examines the controversy at the impression of colonial alternate on international locations equivalent to Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Sweden, that are often missed in prefer of debate approximately Britain.
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Additional info for A Deus Ex Machina Revisited: Atlantic Colonial Trade and European Economic Development
5 The theoretical possession of immense territories in America by the Spanish and the Portuguese did not necessarily mean eﬀective occupation. 30 part i – chapter two But let us look more closely at this asset. The wealth derived from the area depended on the work of an extravagant number of slaves (in 1789 there were over 400,000 in Saint-Domingue). Their number had increased greatly during the previous 20 years and, because of a high mortality rate, they had to be replaced frequently. In exchange for these new slaves, as well as for the supplies they received from the home country, the planters traded their products.
The French West Indies constitute a textbook case of all such issues inherent in the study of colonial trade. The 18th-century “person on the street” considered these colonies to be of great importance to France’s prosperity and splendour. This opinion is still held by numerous historians, one of whom even went so far as to declare a “Glorious Sixty,” which the country had experienced between 1716 and 1775. If we look at the statistics up to 1789 we can see that the volumes and value of sugar, coﬀee, and other goods coming from the West Indies were multiplied nearly ﬁfteen times.
In fact, we should include in our study of colonisation the Venetian and Genoese excursions in the Mediterranean as early as the 13th century, as well as Portuguese prospecting along the African coasts and in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean decades before Christopher Columbus discovered America. 2 It should be noted that Denmark and Sweden never possessed more than small territories. See Leos Müller’s essay in this volume. Germany and Italy had none before the end of the 19th century. m. 3 On the European stage the acquisition of unknown lands by the Kings of Castile and Aragon, as well as the King of Portugal’s direct access to the pepper and spice producing regions, were perceived as providing undeniable increases in power.
A Deus Ex Machina Revisited: Atlantic Colonial Trade and European Economic Development by P Emmer, O Petre-Grenouilleau, Jessica Roitman